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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_________________________
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from_________to ________
Commission File Number: 001-39797
Upstart Holdings, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
_________________________

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
46-4332431
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
Upstart Holdings, Inc.
2950 S. Delaware Street, Suite 300
San Mateo, California 94403
(650) 204-1000
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
_________________________

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class:Trading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered:
Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per shareUPSTNasdaq Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No ☒
As of April 29, 2022 there were 84,773,724 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.



Upstart Holdings, Inc.
FORM 10-Q
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Other Information
Item 6.
2

Table of Contents
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws about us and our industry, which statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements generally relate to future events or our future financial or operating performance. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “seek,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “aim,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” or “continue,” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions that concern our expectations, strategy, plans, or intentions. Forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q include statements about:
our future financial performance, including our expectations regarding our revenue, our operating expenses, our ability to determine reserves and our ability to remain profitable;
our ability to improve the effectiveness and predictiveness of our AI models and our expectations that improvements in our AI models can lead to higher approval rates and lower interest rates;
our ability to increase the volume of loans facilitated by our AI lending platform;
our ability to successfully maintain a diversified loan funding strategy, including bank partnerships and whole loan sales and securitization transactions;
our ability to maintain competitive interest rates offered to borrowers on our platform, while enabling our bank partners to achieve an adequate return over their cost of funding;
our ability to successfully build our brand and protect our reputation from negative publicity;
our ability to increase the effectiveness of our marketing strategies, including our direct consumer marketing initiatives;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and any associated economic downturn on our business and results of operations;
our expectations and management of future growth, including expanding the number of potential borrowers;
our ability to successfully adjust our proprietary AI models, products and services in a timely manner in response to changing macroeconomic conditions and fluctuations in the credit market;
our compliance with applicable local, state and federal laws;
our ability to comply with and successfully adapt to complex and evolving regulatory environments, including regulation of artificial intelligence and machine learning technology;
our expectations regarding regulatory support of our approach to AI-based lending, including our ongoing discussions with the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, or CFPB;
our expectations regarding the success of our strategic investments and acquisitions, including the integration of acquired operations, products, technology, internal controls and personnel;
our expectations concerning relationships with third parties;
our ability to protect against increasingly sophisticated fraudulent borrowing and online theft;
our ability to service loans and the ability of third-party collection agents, to pursue collection of delinquent and defaulted loans;
our ability to successfully compete with companies that are currently in, or may in the future enter, the markets in which we operate;
3

Table of Contents
our expectations regarding new and evolving markets and our ability to enter into new markets and introduce new products and services, such as our introduction of auto loans and small dollar loans;
our ability to effectively secure and maintain the confidentiality of the information received, accessed, stored, provided and used across our systems;
our ability to successfully obtain and maintain corporate funding and liquidity to support continued growth and for general corporate purposes;
our capital allocation plans, including expected allocations of cash and timing for any share repurchases and other investments;
our ability to attract, integrate and retain qualified employees;
our ability to maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting and operations;
our ability to effectively manage and expand the capabilities of our operations teams, outsourcing relationships and other business operations;
our ability to maintain, protect and enhance our intellectual property;
our expectations regarding outstanding litigation and regulatory investigations; and
our ability to manage the increased expenses associated with being a public company.

We caution you that the foregoing list may not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this report.

Forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this report primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties, and other factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this report. Readers are urged to carefully review and consider the various disclosures made in this report and in other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission that disclose risks and uncertainties that may affect our business. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this report. We cannot assure you that the results, events, and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur, and actual results, events, or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.

Neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of any of these forward-looking statements. Moreover, the forward-looking statements made in this report relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this report to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this report or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. Undue reliance should not be placed on our forward-looking statements as we may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, or investments we may make.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this report, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
4

Table of Contents

Each of the terms the “Company,” “we,” “our,” “us” and similar terms used herein refer collectively to Upstart Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise stated.


5

Table of Contents
PART 1. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except share data)
(Unaudited)

December 31,March 31,
20212022
Assets
Cash$986,608 $757,828 
Restricted cash204,633 254,866 
Loans (at fair value)252,477 597,981 
Property, equipment, and software, net24,259 29,816 
Operating lease right of use assets96,118 93,219 
Non-marketable equity securities40,000 41,000 
Goodwill67,062 67,062 
Intangible assets, net19,906 18,837 
Other assets (includes $26,676 and $34,344 at fair value as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022, respectively)
129,392 126,982 
Total assets(a)
$1,820,455 $1,987,591 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Liabilities:
Accounts payable$6,563 $10,289 
Payable to investors107,598 139,802 
Borrowings695,432 769,222 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities (includes $13,095 and $13,531 at fair value as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022, respectively)
103,418 91,723 
Operating lease liabilities100,366 100,051 
Total liabilities(a)
1,013,377 1,111,087 
Stockholders’ equity:
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 700,000,000 shares authorized; 83,659,665 and 84,676,746, shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022, respectively
8 9 
Additional paid-in capital740,849 777,582 
Retained earnings66,221 98,913 
Total stockholders’ equity807,078 876,504 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$1,820,455 $1,987,591 
____________
(a)The following table presents information on assets and liabilities related to variable interest entities (“VIEs”) that are consolidated by Upstart Holdings, Inc. at December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022. The assets in the table below may only be used to settle obligations of consolidated VIEs and are in excess of those obligations. The holders of the beneficial interests do not have recourse to the general credit of Upstart Holdings, Inc. The assets and liabilities in the table below include third-party assets and liabilities of consolidated VIEs and exclude intercompany balances that eliminate in consolidation.

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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except share data)
(Unaudited)
December 31,March 31,
20212022
Assets
Cash $7,700 $407 
Restricted cash79,561 75,527 
Loans (at fair value)245,972 591,554 
Other assets (includes $7,571 and $5,840 at fair value as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022, respectively)
8,792 8,485 
Total assets$342,025 $675,973 
Liabilities
Borrowings48,536 121,551 
Other liabilities 778 677 
Total liabilities$49,314 $122,228 



































The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended March 31,
20212022
Revenue:
Revenue from fees, net$116,170 $313,982 
Interest income and fair value adjustments, net5,175 (3,846)
Total revenue121,345 310,136 
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing49,376 133,449 
Customer operations17,388 48,407 
Engineering and product development18,988 49,991 
General, administrative, and other20,019 43,456 
Total operating expenses105,771 275,303 
Income from operations15,574 34,833 
Other expense(5,251)(2,122)
Net income before income taxes10,323 32,711 
Provision for income taxes221 19 
Net income$10,102 $32,692 
Net income per share, basic$0.14 $0.39 
Net income per share, diluted$0.11 $0.34 
Weighted-average number of shares outstanding used in computing net income per share, basic73,629,122 84,230,445 
Weighted-average number of shares outstanding used in computing net income per share, diluted91,449,571 95,457,776 






















The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
(Unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021
Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalAccumulated
Deficit
Total Stockholders’ Equity
SharesAmount
Balance as of December 31, 202073,314,026 $7 $369,467 $(69,222)$300,252 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options521,511 — 1,492 — 1,492 
Issuance of common stock upon settlement of restricted stock units308 — — — — 
Exercise of common stock warrants72,407 — — — — 
Stock-based compensation expense— — 8,744 — 8,744 
Net income— — — 10,102 10,102 
Balance as of March 31, 202173,908,252 $7 $379,703 $(59,120)$320,590 



Three Months Ended March 31, 2022
Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalRetained EarningsTotal Stockholders’ Equity
SharesAmount
Balance as of December 31, 202183,659,665 $8 $740,849 $66,221 $807,078 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options888,961 1 5,625 — 5,626 
Issuance of common stock upon settlement of restricted stock units80,226 — — — — 
Issuance of common stock under employee stock purchase plan47,894 — 4,431 — 4,431 
Stock-based compensation expense— — 26,677 — 26,677 
Net income— — — 32,692 32,692 
Balance as of March 31, 202284,676,746 $9 $777,582 $98,913 $876,504 
























The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212022
Cash flows from operating activities
Net income$10,102 $32,692 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
Change in fair value of financial instruments901 18,356 
Stock-based compensation8,622 25,050 
Loss (gain) on loan servicing arrangement, net67 (8,705)
Depreciation and amortization816 2,781 
Non-cash interest expense18 776 
Net changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Purchase of loans for immediate resale(1,294,634)(3,014,594)
Proceeds from immediate resale of loans1,294,634 3,014,594 
Purchase of loans held-for-sale(18,240)(443,190)
Principal payments received for loans held-for-sale2,637 20,328 
Proceeds from sale of loans held-for-sale38,140 50,764 
Other assets(9,988)7,287 
Operating lease liability and right-of-use asset234 2,584 
Accounts payable(5,807)3,371 
Payable to investors10,989 32,204 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities4,601 (11,093)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities43,092 (266,795)
Cash flows from investing activities
Proceeds from sale of loans held-for-investment8,329  
Principal payments received for loans held-for-investment3,002 9,397 
Principal payments received for notes receivable and repayments of residual certificates3,119 2,067 
Purchase of loans held-for-investment(12,947) 
Purchase of non-marketable equity security (1,000)
Purchase of property and equipment(267)(1,629)
Capitalized software costs(334)(3,658)
Net cash provided by investing activities902 5,177 
Cash flows from financing activities
Proceeds from borrowings5,831 80,004 
Repayments of borrowings(26,584)(6,990)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock under employee stock purchase plan 4,431 
Proceeds from exercise of stock options1,492 5,626 
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities(19,261)83,071 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and restricted cash24,733 (178,547)
Cash and restricted cash at beginning of period311,333 1,191,241 
Cash and restricted cash at end of period$336,066 $1,012,694 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information
Cash paid for interest$1,030 $1,763 
Cash paid for income taxes 18 
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Continued)
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212022
Supplemental disclosures of non-cash investing and financing activities
Capitalized stock-based compensation expense$122 $1,627 
Reclassification of loans held-for-investment to held-for-sale26 109,792 



































The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

1.Description of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business

Upstart Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries (together “Upstart”, the “Company”, “we”, or “our”) apply modern data science and technology to the process of originating consumer credit. The Company helps originate credit, including personal and auto loans, by providing bank partners with a proprietary, cloud-based, artificial intelligence lending platform. As the Company’s technology continues to improve and additional banks adopt the Upstart platform, consumers benefit from improved access to affordable and frictionless credit. The Company currently operates in the United States and is headquartered in San Mateo, California and Columbus, Ohio. The Company’s fiscal year ends on December 31.
Basis of Presentation and Consolidation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the annual consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K and in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments, necessary to state fairly the Company’s financial position, results of operations, comprehensive income and cash flows for the periods presented, but are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be anticipated of any future annual or interim periods.

Certain information and disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Accordingly, the information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Use of Estimates

The preparation of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires that management make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods.

Significant estimates and assumptions made in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements, which Management believes are critical in understanding and evaluating the Company’s reported financial results include: (i) fair value determinations; (ii) stock-based compensation; (iii) consolidation of VIEs; (iv) provision for income taxes, net of valuation allowance for deferred tax assets; and (v) the evaluation for impairment of goodwill and acquired intangible assets. The Company bases its estimates on various factors it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ from those estimates and such differences could affect the results of operations reported in future periods.
Stock-Based Compensation

The Company issues stock options, restricted stock units (“RSUs”), performance-based restricted stock units (“PRSUs”), and restricted stock to employees and non-employees, including directors and third-party service providers, and employee stock purchase rights granted under the Company’s employee stock purchase plan (“ESPP”). Stock options and employee stock purchase rights granted under the ESPP are initially measured at fair value at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. RSUs and restricted stock are measured at the fair market value of our common stock at the grant date. PRSUs are initially measured at fair value using a Monte Carlo simulation model. Stock-based compensation expenses are recognized based on their respective grant-
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

date fair values. Forfeitures are estimated at the time of grant and revised, as necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from initial estimates. Stock-based compensation expense is recorded net of estimated forfeitures, such that the expense is recorded only for those awards that are expected to vest.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
        
The Company did not adopt any new accounting standards during the three months ended March 31, 2022.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

In March 2020 the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting followed by ASU 2021-01, Reference Rate Reform, Scope issued in January 2021. ASU 2020-04 and ASU 2021-01 provide temporary optional expedients and exceptions for applying U.S. GAAP to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference the London Interbank Offered Rate or another reference rate expected to be discontinued because of reference rate reform, if certain criteria are met. The optional guidance in ASU 2020-04 and ASU 2021-01 is effective for a limited period of time through December 31, 2022 and may be applied prospectively to contract modifications and hedging relationships. The Company does not expect the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements or related disclosures.

In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers. The new guidance requires contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination to be recognized and measured by the acquirer on the acquisition date in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, as if it had originated the contracts. Under the current business combinations guidance, such assets and liabilities are recognized by the acquirer at fair value on the acquisition date. The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, with early adoption permitted. The ASU is to be applied prospectively to business combinations occurring on or after the effective date of the amendment (or if adopted early as of an interim period, as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes the interim period of early application). This standard has no impact on acquired contract assets or liabilities from business combinations occurring prior to the effective date of adoption. The Company is currently assessing the impact the standard will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

2.Revenue
Revenue from fees, net

The Company disaggregates revenue from fees by type of service for the periods presented as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212022
Revenue from fees, net:
Platform and referral fees, net$106,953 $271,812 
Servicing and other fees, net9,217 42,170 
Total revenue from fees, net$116,170 $313,982 
Platform and referral fees, net

The Company enters into contracts with bank partners to provide access to a cloud-based artificial intelligence lending platform developed by the Company (the “Upstart platform”) to enable banks to originate
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

unsecured personal and secured auto loans. The Upstart platform includes a cloud-based application (through Upstart.com or a bank-branded program) for submitting loan applications, verifying information provided within submitted applications, risk underwriting (through a series of proprietary technology solutions), delivery of electronic loan offers, and if the offer is accepted by the borrower, an electronic loan documentation signed by the borrower. Bank partners can specify certain parameters of loans they are willing to originate. Under these contracts, bank partners can choose to use Upstart’s referral services, which allow them to access new borrowers through Upstart’s marketing channels. The Company’s contracts with bank partners are non-cancelable and generally have 12-month terms that automatically renew.

After origination, Upstart-powered loans are either retained by bank partners, purchased by the Company for immediate resale to institutional investors under loan sale agreements, or purchased and held by the Company. For loans purchased by the Company, Upstart pays bank partners a one-time loan premium fee upon completion of the minimum contractual holding period. Upstart also pays bank partners monthly loan trailing fees based on the amount and timing of principal and interest payments made by borrowers of the underlying loans. Both the loan premium fees and loan trailing fees are consideration payable to customers and are recorded as a reduction to platform and referral fees, net, which is part of revenue from fees, net, in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income. The Company recognized $3.6 million and $8.7 million of loan premium fees and loan trailing fees as contra-revenue within platform and referral fees, net during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2022, respectively.

As of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022, the Company recorded $4.3 million and $5.2 million of loan trailing fee liability, respectively, which is recorded at fair value and included within accrued expenses and other liabilities on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. Refer to “Note 4. Fair Value Measurement” for additional information on changes in fair value associated with trailing fee liabilities.

The Company’s arrangements for platform and referral services typically consist of an obligation to provide one or both of these services to customers, which are our bank partners, on a when and if needed basis (a stand-ready obligation), and revenue is recognized as such services are performed. Additionally, the services have the same pattern and period of transfer, and when provided individually or together, are accounted for as a single combined performance obligation representing a series of distinct services.

Platform and referral services are typically provided under a fixed or declining (tier-based) price per unit based on volume or as a percentage of the total value of loans originated each period with certain bank partners subject to minimum fees; however, pricing for these services may also be based on usage fees, calculated as a percentage of each loan originated. Tier-based pricing, when offered, resets on a monthly basis and does not accumulate. Given that the nature of the Company’s promise is to stand-ready and provide continuous access to and process transactions through the platform, tier-based pricing based on usage represents variable consideration. Platform and referral fees represent variable consideration as loan origination volume is not known at contract inception. These fees are determined each time a loan is originated. Fees for platform and referral services are typically billed and paid on either a daily or monthly basis. As such, the Company’s contracts with customers do not include a significant financing component.

The Company did not recognize revenue from performance obligations related to prior periods for the periods presented. The Company had no material contract assets, contract liabilities, or deferred contract costs recorded as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022. The Company had $44.8 million and $33.8 million of accounts receivable that are included in other assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheets related to contracts with customers as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022, respectively. The standard payment terms on accounts receivable are 30 days. The Company’s allowance for bad debt and bad debt expense were immaterial for the periods presented.

The Company capitalizes incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer, which are certain sales commissions paid to acquire bank partners. Capitalized costs are amortized over the expected period of benefit,
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

which we have determined, based on an analysis, to be three years. The Company applies the practical expedient to expense costs to obtain contracts with customers if the amortization period is one year or less. As of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022, the Company had an immaterial amount of contract costs capitalized within other assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. The Company amortized an immaterial amount of capitalized contracts costs to sales and marketing in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income for the periods presented.

Customers accounting for greater than 10% of total revenue were as follows:

Three Months Ended March 31,
20212022
Customer A60%46%
Customer B25%31%

Customers accounting for greater than 10% of accounts receivable were as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212022
Customer C21%*
Customer D39%38%
* Less than 10%

Servicing and other fees, net

The Company also enters into contracts with bank partners and institutional investors to provide loan servicing for the life of Upstart-powered loans. These services commence upon origination of these loans by bank partners and include collection, processing and reconciliations of payments received, investor reporting and borrower customer support as well as distribution of funds to the holders of the loans. The Company charges the loan holder a monthly servicing fee calculated based on a predetermined percentage of the outstanding principal balance. Servicing fees also include certain ancillary fees charged on a per transaction basis for processing late payments and payments declined due to insufficient funds. Servicing fees are recognized in the period the services are provided. Loan servicing fees are not within the scope of ASC 606 and are accounted for under ASC 860, Transfers and Servicing.

Servicing and other fees, net also include gains and losses on assets and liabilities recognized under loan servicing arrangements for loans retained by bank partners or loans sold to institutional investors. Such gains or losses are recognized based on whether the benefits of servicing are expected to be more or less than adequate compensation for servicing obligations performed by the Company. Servicing fees also include changes in fair value of loan servicing assets and liabilities in the periods presented. Refer to “Note 4. Fair Value Measurement” for additional information on changes in fair value associated with servicing assets and liabilities.

The Company recognized a net gain (loss) related to loan servicing rights upon loan sales for the periods presented as follows:

Three Months Ended March 31,
20212022
Net gain (loss) related to loan servicing rights$(67)$8,705 

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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

The Company generally outsources borrower payment collections for loans that are more than 30 days past due or charged off to third-party collection agencies. The Company charges bank partners and institutional investors for collection agency fees related to their outstanding loan portfolio. The Company has discretion in hiring the collection agencies and determining the scope of their work. As the principal in the arrangement, the Company recognizes gross revenue from collection agency fees in the period that the services are provided. Upstart also receives certain ancillary fees inclusive of late payment fees and ACH fail fees. Revenue from collection agency fees and borrower fees are included in servicing and other fees, net as part of revenue from fees, net in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income. The total fees charged by collection agencies are also recognized in the period incurred and reported as part of customer operations expenses.

The Company recognized collection agency fees and borrower fees, which are included in servicing and other fees, net for the periods presented as follows:

Three Months Ended March 31,
20212022
Collection agency fees$863 $1,990 
Borrower fees$886 $5,230 
Interest Income and Fair Value Adjustments, Net

Interest income and fair value adjustments, net is comprised of interest income, interest expense and net changes in the fair value of financial instruments, held in the Company’s normal course of business at fair value, including loans and notes receivable and residual certificates.

The table below presents components of the interest income and fair value adjustments, net presented in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income:

Three Months Ended March 31,
20212022
Interest income and fair value adjustments, net:
Interest income$3,405 $15,134 
Interest expense(1,030)(959)
Fair value and other adjustments, net(1)(2)
2,800 (18,021)
Total interest income and fair value adjustments, net$5,175 $(3,846)
_________
1.Includes $2.8 million and $1.3 million of realized gain on sale of loans for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2022, respectively.
2.Includes $1.0 million of income from capital market programs, net for the three months ended March 31, 2021.

Interest income

Interest income is recognized based on the terms of the underlying agreements with borrowers for loans held on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets and is earned over the life of a loan.

Interest income also includes accrued interest earned on outstanding loans but not collected. Loans that have reached a delinquency of over 120 days are classified as non-accrual status and any accrued interest recorded in relation to these loans is reversed in the respective period. The Company does not record an allowance for credit losses on accrued interest receivable. As of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022, the Company has recorded
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

$2.6 million and $5.0 million of accrued interest income in loans on the condensed consolidated balance sheets, respectively.
Interest expense

Interest expense is primarily related to interest recorded on the Company’s borrowings on warehouse credit facilities and risk retention funding loans. Interest expense includes accrued interest incurred but not paid. Accrued interest expenses were immaterial as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022.
Fair value and other adjustments, net

Fair value and other adjustments, net include changes in fair value of financial instruments, other than loan servicing assets and liabilities. These adjustments are recorded in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income and include both realized and unrealized changes to the value of related assets and liabilities. Refer to “Note 4. Fair Value Measurement” for additional information.

Fair value and other adjustments, net also include gains received through our securitization programs and amounts received from borrowers for previously charged-off loans held on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. These amounts are recognized in the period received.

3.Variable Interest Entities
Consolidated VIEs

The Company consolidates VIEs in which the Company has a variable interest and is determined to be the primary beneficiary. This determination is based on whether the Company has a variable interest (or combination of variable interests) that provides the Company with (a) the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and (b) the obligation to absorb losses or right to receive benefits that could be potentially significant to the VIE. The Company continually reassesses whether it is the primary beneficiary of a VIE throughout the entire period the Company is involved with the VIE.

The Company also determines whether decision-maker or service-provider fees are variable interests. Decision-maker or service-provider fees are not considered variable interests when the arrangement does not expose the Company to risks of loss that a potential VIE was designed to pass on to its variable interest holders, the fees are commensurate, the arrangement is at market, and the Company does not have any other interests (including direct interests and certain indirect interests held through related parties) that absorb more than an insignificant amount of a VIE’s potential variability. This determination can have a significant impact on the Company’s consolidation analysis, as it could affect whether a legal entity is a VIE and whether the Company is the primary beneficiary of a VIE. When the Company’s decision-maker or service-provider fee is not a variable interest, the Company is viewed as acting as a fiduciary for the potential VIE.
Warehouse Entities

The Company established Upstart Loan Trust and Upstart Auto Warehouse Trust to enter into warehouse credit facilities for the purpose of purchasing Upstart-powered loans. See “Note 7. Borrowings” for additional information. The entities are Delaware statutory trusts that are structured to be bankruptcy-remote, with third-party banks operating as trustees.
Other Consolidated VIEs

Upstart Loan Trust 2, a Delaware statutory trust, holds personal and auto loans facilitated through the Upstart platform. These loans include, but are not limited to, loans not pledged or eligible to be pledged to the
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

Company’s warehouse credit facilities or loans that were the result of the Company’s repurchases of loans for breaches of representations and warranties made to institutional investors.

The following tables present a summary of financial assets and liabilities from the Company’s involvement with consolidated VIEs:

AssetsLiabilitiesNet Assets
December 31, 2021
Total consolidated VIEs$342,025 $49,314 $292,711 

AssetsLiabilitiesNet Assets
March 31, 2022
Total consolidated VIEs$675,973 $122,228 $553,745 

The Company’s continued involvement in all of its securitizations in which it is the sponsor includes loan servicing rights and obligations for which it receives servicing fees over the life of the underlying loans. The Company monitors its status as the primary beneficiary and in case of reconsideration events, updates the analysis accordingly.
Unconsolidated VIEs

The Company’s transactions with unconsolidated VIEs include securitizations of unsecured personal whole loans and sales of whole loans to VIEs. While the Company continues to be involved with the unconsolidated VIEs in its role as the sponsor and the servicer of these transactions, the Company does not hold a significant economic interest in these entities and has determined that it is not the primary beneficiary of these entities. The Company’s unconsolidated VIEs include entities established as the issuers and grantor trusts for the 2018-2, 2019-1, and 2019-2 securitization transactions.

In cases where the VIEs are not consolidated and the transfer of the loans from the Company to the securitization trust meets sale accounting criteria, the Company recognizes a gain or loss on sales of loans. The net proceeds of the sale represent the fair value of any assets obtained or liabilities incurred as part of the transaction. The assets are transferred into a trust such that the assets are legally isolated from the creditors of the Company and are not available to satisfy obligations of the Company. These assets can only be used to settle obligations of the underlying securitization trusts.

The following tables summarize the aggregate value of assets and liabilities of unconsolidated VIEs in which the Company holds a variable interest but is not the primary beneficiary:

AssetsLiabilitiesNet AssetsMaximum Exposure to Losses
December 31, 2021
Securitizations and other$217,321 $160,248 $57,073 $15,503 

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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

AssetsLiabilitiesNet AssetsMaximum Exposure to Losses
March 31, 2022
Securitizations and other$165,716 $116,886 $48,830 $13,599 

The carrying value of assets that relate to variable interests in unconsolidated VIEs consists of $8.3 million and $6.4 million of securitization notes and residual certificates which are included in other assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022, respectively. The Company also had $7.2 million of cash deposits made to reserve accounts for related securitizations, included in other assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022.

The Company’s maximum exposure to loss from its involvement with unconsolidated VIEs represents the estimated loss that would be incurred under severe, hypothetical circumstances, for which the Company believes the possibility is remote, such as where the value of securitization notes and senior and residual certificates the Company holds as part of the risk retention requirement declines to zero.
Retained Interest in Unconsolidated VIEs

The investors and the securitization trusts have no direct recourse to the Company’s assets, and holders of the securities issued by the securitization trusts can look only to the assets of the securitization trusts that issued their securities for payment. The beneficial interests held by the Company and the Company’s majority-owned affiliates are subject principally to the credit and prepayment risk stemming from the underlying unsecured personal whole loans.
Off-Balance Sheet Loans

Off-balance sheet loans relate to securitization transactions for which the Company has some form of continuing involvement, including as servicer. For a loan related to securitization transactions where servicing is the only form of continuing involvement, the Company would only experience a loss if it were required to repurchase such a loan due to a breach in representations and warranties associated with its loan sale or servicing contracts. Additionally, in the unlikely event principal payments on the loans backing a securitization are insufficient to pay senior note holders, any amounts the Company contributed to the securitization reserve accounts may be depleted.

The Company routinely contributes loans to securitization transactions which it co-sponsors as a non-retaining sponsor. As a non-retaining sponsor and a servicer of these transactions, the Company does not retain economic risk in these deals. Contributions of loans to these securitizations are recognized as transfers under Topic 860, Transfers and Servicing.

4.Fair Value Measurement

The following table presents assets and liabilities measured at fair value and categorized as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy:
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

December 31,March 31,
20212022
Assets
Loans$252,477 $597,981 
Notes receivable and residual certificates8,288 6,384 
Loan servicing assets18,388 27,960 
Total assets$279,153 $632,325 
Liabilities
Loan servicing liabilities$8,780 $8,290 
Trailing fee liabilities4,315 5,241 
Total liabilities$13,095 $13,531 

Financial instruments are categorized in the fair value hierarchy based on the significance of unobservable factors in the overall fair value measurement. Since the Company’s loans, notes receivable and residual certificates, loan servicing assets and liabilities, and trailing fee liabilities do not trade in an active market with readily observable prices, the Company uses significant unobservable inputs to measure the fair value of these assets and liabilities.

There were no transfers between Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy during the periods presented.
Loans

Loans included in the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets are classified as either held-for-sale or held-for-investment. As of December 31, 2021, $142.7 million and $109.8 million of loans held on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets were classified as held-for-sale and held-for-investment, respectively. As of January 1, 2022 the Company reclassified all loans previously classified as held-for-investment to held-for-sale due to the Company’s intent and ability to sell the loans prior to maturity. All loans purchased during the three months ended March 31, 2022 were classified as held-for-sale.
Valuation Methodology

Loans held-for-sale and held-for-investment are measured at estimated fair value using a discounted cash flow model. The fair valuation methodology considers projected prepayments and historical defaults, losses and recoveries to project future losses and net cash flows on loans. Net cash flows are discounted using an estimate of market rates of return. The fair value of these loans also includes accrued interest.

Significant Inputs and Assumptions

The following table presents quantitative information about the significant unobservable inputs used for the Company’s Level 3 fair value measurements for loans held-for-investment and held-for-sale:
December 31, 2021March 31, 2022
MinimumMaximum
Weighted-Average (2)
MinimumMaximum
Weighted-Average (2)
Discount rate3.42 %16.49 %7.29 %4.68 %16.95 %7.53 %
Credit risk rate (1)
0.08 %55.79 %17.98 %0.01 %79.09 %14.65 %
Prepayment rate (1)
8.70 %88.12 %40.35 %5.75 %91.56 %41.49 %
(1)Expressed as a percentage of the original principal balance of the loans
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

(2)Unobservable inputs were weighted by relative fair value

Discount rates–The discount rates are rates of return used to discount future expected cash flows to arrive at a present value, which represents the fair value. The discount rates used for the projected net cash flows are the Company’s estimates of the rates of return that market participants would require when investing in these financial instruments with cash flows dependent on credit quality of the related loan. A risk premium component is implicitly included in the discount rates to reflect the amount of compensation market participants require due to the uncertainty inherent in the instruments’ cash flows resulting from risks such as credit and liquidity.

Credit risk rates–The credit risk rates are an estimate of the net cumulative principal payments that will not be repaid over the entire life of a financial instrument. The credit risk rates are expressed as a percentage of the original principal amount of the instrument. The estimated net cumulative loss represents the sum of the net losses estimated to occur each month of the life of the instrument, net of the average recovery expected to be received.

Prepayment rates–Prepayment rates are an estimate of the cumulative principal prepayments that will occur over the entire life of a loan as a percentage of the original principal amount of the loan. The assumption regarding cumulative prepayments impact the projected balances and expected terms of the loans.

The above inputs are similarly used in estimating fair value of related financial instruments. Refer to the Assets and Liabilities related to Securitization Transactions section below for more information.

Significant Recurring Level 3 Fair Value Input Sensitivity

The below table presents the sensitivity of the loans held-for-sale and held-for-investment to adverse changes in key assumptions used in the valuation model as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022, respectively. The estimated fair value of these loans is not sensitive to adverse changes in expected prepayment rates as such changes would not result in a significant impact on the fair value in either periods.

December 31,March 31,
20212022
Fair value of loans$252,477 $597,981 
Discount rates
100 basis point increase(3,392)(7,549)
200 basis point increase(6,709)(14,941)
Expected credit loss rates on underlying loans
10% adverse change(3,959)(8,915)
20% adverse change(7,927)(17,790)

Rollforward of Level 3 Fair Values

The following tables include a rollforward of the loans classified within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy:

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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

Loans Held-for-
Sale
Loans Held-for-InvestmentTotal
Fair value at December 31, 2020$60,232 $18,228 $78,460 
Reclassification of loans from HFI to HFS(26)26  
Purchases of loans18,240 12,947 31,187 
Sale of loans(46,469) (46,469)
Purchase of loans for immediate resale1,294,634  1,294,634 
Immediate resale(1,294,634) (1,294,634)
Repayments received(3,310)(2,329)(5,639)
Changes in fair value recorded in earnings357 (558)(201)
Other changes(230)81 (149)
Fair value at March 31, 2021$28,794 $28,395 $57,189 
Loans Held-for-
Sale
Loans Held-for-InvestmentTotal
Fair value at December 31, 2021$142,685 $109,792 $252,477 
Reclassification of loans from HFI to HFS109,792 (109,792) 
Purchases of loans443,190  443,190 
Sale of loans(50,764) (50,764)
Purchase of loans for immediate resale3,014,594  3,014,594 
Immediate resale(3,014,594) (3,014,594)
Repayments received(29,726) (29,726)
Changes in fair value recorded in earnings(19,511) (19,511)
Other changes2,315  2,315 
Fair value at March 31, 2022$597,981 $ $597,981 
The following table presents the aggregate fair value and aggregate principal outstanding of all loans and loans that were 90 days or more past due included in the condensed consolidated balance sheets:


LoansLoans > 90 Days Past Due
December 31,March 31,December 31,March 31,
2021202220212022
Outstanding principal balance$277,228 $636,132 $1,979 $3,256 
Net fair value and accrued interest adjustments(24,751)(38,151)(1,692)(2,970)
Fair value(1)
$252,477 $597,981 $287 $286 
_________
(1)     Includes $50.1 million and $230.8 million of auto loans as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022, respectively, of which an immaterial amount is 90 days or more past due for each period presented.

The Company places loans on non-accrual status at 120 days past due. Any accrued interest recorded in relation to these loans is reversed in the respective period. The Company charges-off loans no later than 120 days past due.
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

Assets related to Securitization Transactions

As of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022, the Company held notes receivable and residual certificates with an aggregate fair value of $8.3 million and $6.4 million, respectively, within other assets on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. The balances consist of securitization notes and residual certificates corresponding to the 5% economic risk retention the Company is required to maintain as the retaining sponsor of the unconsolidated securitizations.
Valuation Methodology

The discounted cash flow methodology, which is used to estimate the fair value of notes receivable and residual certificates, uses the same projected net cash flows as their related loans. This model uses inputs that are inherently judgmental and reflect the Company’s best estimates of the assumptions a market participant would use to calculate fair value.
Significant Inputs and Assumptions

The following table presents quantitative information about the significant unobservable inputs used for the Company’s Level 3 fair value measurements of assets related to securitization transactions:
December 31, 2021March 31, 2022
MinimumMaximum
Weighted-Average (2)
MinimumMaximum
Weighted-Average (2)
Notes receivable and residual certificates
Discount rate4.96 %15.72 %6.78 %4.47 %16.17 %7.40 %
Credit risk rate (1)
0.04 %50.69 %18.47 %0.04 %50.69 %18.52 %
Prepayment rate (1)
15.60 %36.08 %27.82 %15.60 %36.08 %27.77 %
_________
(1)Expressed as a percentage of the original principal balance of the loans underlying the financial instruments
(2)Unobservable inputs were weighted by relative fair value

Significant Recurring Level 3 Fair Value Input Sensitivity

The securities issued in the securitization transactions are senior or subordinated based on the waterfall criteria of loan payments to each security class, with the residual interest (the “residual certificates”) issued being the first to absorb credit losses in accordance with the waterfall criteria. Accordingly, the residual certificates are the most sensitive to adverse changes in credit risk rates. Depending on the specific securitization, a hypothetical increase in the credit risk rate of 10% to 20% would result in significant decreases in the fair value of the residual certificates. On average, a hypothetical increase in the credit risk rate under a discounted cash flow methodology of 20% would result in a 10% decrease in the fair value of the residual certificates as of March 31, 2022. The remaining classes of securities, with the exception of those in 2018-2, are all overcollateralized such that changes in credit risk rates are not expected to have significant impacts on their fair values.

The fair value of the securities is also sensitive to adverse changes in discount rates, which represent estimates of the rates of return that institutional investors would require when investing in financial instruments with similar risk and return characteristics. On average, a hypothetical 100 basis point increase in discount rates results in a decrease in fair value of the securities (including securitization notes and residual certificates) of 0.69% and 0.65% as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022, respectively. On average, a hypothetical 200 basis point increase in discount rates results in a decrease in fair value of securitization notes and residual certificates of 1.37% and 1.28% as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022, respectively.
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)


The fair value of securitization notes and residual certificates are not sensitive to adverse changes in expected prepayment rates as such changes would not result in a significant impact on the fair value as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022.
Rollforward of Level 3 Fair Values

The following tables include a rollforward of the notes receivable and residual certificates related to securitization transactions classified by the Company within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy:

Notes Receivable and Residual Certificates
Fair value at December 31, 2020$19,074 
Repayments and settlements(3,119)
Changes in fair value recorded in earnings78 
Fair value at March 31, 2021$16,033 
Notes Receivable and Residual Certificates
Fair value at December 31, 2021$8,288 
Repayments and settlements(2,067)
Changes in fair value recorded in earnings163 
Fair value at March 31, 2022$6,384 
Loan Servicing Assets and Liabilities
Valuation Methodology

Loan servicing assets and liabilities are measured at estimated fair value using a discounted cash flow model. The cash flows in the valuation model represent the difference between the contractual servicing fees charged to institutional investors and an estimated market servicing fee. Since contractual servicing fees are generally based on the monthly unpaid principal balance of the underlying loans, the expected cash flows in the model incorporate estimates of net losses and prepayments.
Significant Inputs and Assumptions

The following table presents quantitative information about the significant unobservable inputs used for the Company’s Level 3 fair value measurements for loan servicing assets and liabilities:
December 31, 2021March 31, 2022
MinimumMaximum
Weighted-Average (2)
MinimumMaximum
Weighted-Average (2)
Discount rate13.00 %20.00 %17.69 %13.00 %20.00 %17.56 %
Credit risk rate (1)
0.03 %52.78 %18.36 %0.03 %62.06 %17.84 %
Market-servicing rate (3)(4)(5)
0.62 %3.73 %0.62 %0.62 %3.73 %0.62 %
Prepayment rate (1)
5.99 %91.43 %36.39 %5.99 %92.72 %38.54 %
_________
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

(1)Expressed as a percentage of the original principal balance of the loans underlying the servicing arrangement
(2)Unobservable inputs were weighted by relative fair value
(3)Excludes ancillary fees that would be passed on to a third-party servicer
(4)Expressed as a percentage of the outstanding principal balance of the loan
(5)Includes personal loans and auto loans

Discount rates–The discount rates are the Company’s estimate of the rates of return that market participants in servicing rights would require when investing in similar servicing rights. Discount rates for servicing rights on existing loans are adjusted to reflect the time value of money and a risk premium intended to reflect the amount of compensation market participants would require due to the uncertainty associated with these instruments’ cash flows.

Credit risk rates–The credit risk rates are the Company’s estimate of the net cumulative principal payments that will not be repaid over the entire life of a loan expressed as a percentage of the original principal amount of the loan. The assumption regarding net cumulative losses impact the projected balances and expected terms of the loans, which are used to project future servicing revenues.

Market-servicing rates–Market-servicing rate is an estimated measure of adequate compensation for a market participant, if one was required. The rate is expressed as a fixed percentage of outstanding principal balance per annum. The estimate considers the profit that would be demanded in the marketplace to service the portfolio of outstanding loans subject to the Company’s servicing agreements.

Prepayment rates–Prepayment rates are the Company’s estimate of the cumulative principal prepayments that will occur over the entire life of a loan as a percentage of the original principal amount of the loan. The assumption regarding cumulative prepayments impact the projected balances and expected terms of the loans, which are used to project future servicing revenues.
Significant Recurring Level 3 Fair Value Input Sensitivity

The table below presents the fair value sensitivity of loan servicing assets and liabilities to adverse changes in key assumptions. The fair value of loan servicing assets and liabilities is not sensitive to adverse changes in discount rates and prepayment rates as such changes would not result in a significant impact on the fair value as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2022, respectively.
December 31,March 31,
20212022
Fair value of loan servicing assets$18,388 $27,960 
Expected market-servicing rates
10% market-servicing rates increase(5,539)(8,150)
20% market-servicing rates increase(