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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_________________________
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from_________to ________
Commission File Number: 001-39797
Upstart Holdings, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
_________________________

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
46-4332431
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
Upstart Holdings, Inc.
2950 S. Delaware Street, Suite 300
San Mateo, California 94403
(650) 204-1000
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
_________________________

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class:Trading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered:
Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per shareUPSTNasdaq Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No ☒
As of November 4, 2021 there were 81,957,413 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.
1


Upstart Holdings, Inc.
FORM 10-Q
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Item 1. 5
8
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
135
2

Table of Contents
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws about us and our industry, which statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements generally relate to future events or our future financial or operating performance. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “seek,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “aim,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” or “continue,” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions that concern our expectations, strategy, plans, or intentions. Forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q include statements about:
our future financial performance, including our expectations regarding our revenue, our operating expenses, our ability to determine reserves and our ability to remain profitable;
our ability to improve the effectiveness and predictiveness of our AI models and our expectations that improvements in our AI models can lead to higher approval rates and lower interest rates;
our ability to increase the volume of loans facilitated by our AI lending platform;
our ability to successfully maintain a diversified loan funding strategy, including bank partnerships and whole loan sales and securitization transactions;
our ability to maintain competitive interest rates offered to borrowers on our platform, while enabling our bank partners to achieve an adequate return over their cost of funding;
our ability to successfully build our brand and protect our reputation from negative publicity;
our ability to increase the effectiveness of our marketing strategies, including our direct consumer marketing initiatives;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and any associated economic downturn on our business and results of operations;
our expectations and management of future growth, including expanding the number of potential borrowers;
our ability to successfully adjust our proprietary AI models, products and services in a timely manner in response to changing macroeconomic conditions and fluctuations in the credit market;
our compliance with applicable local, state and federal laws;
our ability to comply with and successfully adapt to complex and evolving regulatory environments, including regulation of artificial intelligence and machine learning technology;
our expectations regarding regulatory support of our approach to AI-based lending, including our ongoing discussions with the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, or CFPB;
our expectations regarding the success of our strategic acquisitions, including integration of acquired operations, products, technology, internal controls and personnel;
our ability to protect against increasingly sophisticated fraudulent borrowing and online theft;
our ability to service loans and the ability of third-party collection agents, to pursue collection of delinquent and defaulted loans;
our ability to successfully compete with companies that are currently in, or may in the future enter, the markets in which we operate;
our expectations regarding new and evolving markets and our ability enter into new markets and introduce new products and services, such as our recent introduction of auto loans;
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Table of Contents
our ability to effectively secure and maintain the confidentiality of the information received, accessed, stored, provided and used across our systems;
our ability to successfully obtain and maintain funding and liquidity to support continued growth and general corporate purposes;
our ability to attract, integrate and retain qualified employees;
our ability to effectively manage and expand the capabilities of our operations teams, outsourcing relationships and other business operations;
our ability to maintain, protect and enhance our intellectual property;
our expectations regarding outstanding litigation and regulatory investigations; and
the increased expenses associated with being a public company;

We caution you that the foregoing list may not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this report.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this report primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties, and other factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this report. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this report. We cannot assure you that the results, events, and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur, and actual results, events, or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.

Neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of any of these forward-looking statements. Moreover, the forward-looking statements made in this report relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this report to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this report or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, or investments we may make.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this report, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

Each of the terms the “Company,” “we,” “our,” “us” and similar terms used herein refer collectively to Upstart Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise stated.

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Table of Contents
Part 1. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except share data)
(Unaudited)

December 31,September 30,
20202021
Assets
Cash$250,819 $1,041,460 
Restricted cash60,514 130,301 
Loans (at fair value)78,460 129,625 
Notes receivable and residual certificates (at fair value)19,074 10,489 
Property, equipment, and software, net10,032 18,898 
Operating lease right of use assets18,310 70,025 
Non-marketable equity securities 40,000 
Goodwill 66,866 
Intangible assets, net 20,975 
Other assets (includes $6,831 and $12,380 at fair value as of December 31, 2020 and September 30, 2021, respectively)
40,046 77,491 
Total assets(a)
$477,255 $1,606,130 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Liabilities:
Accounts payable$13,775 $9,381 
Payable to investors45,501 84,312 
Borrowings62,626 649,222 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities (includes $9,530 and $10,522 at fair value as of December 31, 2020 and September 30, 2021, respectively)
35,669 71,951 
Operating lease liabilities19,432 72,175 
Total liabilities(a)
177,003 887,041 
Stockholders’ equity:
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 700,000,000 shares authorized; 73,314,026 and 81,539,547, shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2020 and September 30, 2021, respectively
7 8 
Additional paid-in capital369,467 711,804 
Retained earnings (accumulated deficit)(69,222)7,277 
Total stockholders’ equity300,252 719,089 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$477,255 $1,606,130 

(a)The following table presents information on assets and liabilities related to variable interest entities (“VIEs”) that are consolidated by Upstart Holdings, Inc. at December 31, 2020 and September 30, 2021. The assets in the table below may only be used to settle obligations of consolidated VIEs and are in excess of those obligations. The holders of the beneficial interests do not have recourse to the general credit of Upstart Holdings, Inc. The assets and liabilities in the table below include third-party assets and liabilities of consolidated VIEs and exclude intercompany balances that eliminate in consolidation.

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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except share data)
(Unaudited)

December 31,September 30,
20202021
Assets
Restricted cash$12,371 $29,131 
Loans (at fair value)75,373 122,022 
Notes receivable and residual certificates (at fair value)17,219 9,545 
Other assets29 303 
Total assets$104,992 $161,001 
Liabilities
Accounts payable$83 $28 
Borrowings42,181 3,100 
Other liabilities 32 79 
Total liabilities$42,296 $3,207 



































The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
2020202120202021
Revenue:
Revenue from fees, net$62,861 $210,421 $144,179 $513,888 
Interest income and fair value adjustments, net (includes $0 and $1,014 from related parties expense and $0 and $4,238 of related parties fair value adjustments for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively)
2,498 18,029 2,527 29,853 
Total revenue65,359 228,450 146,706 543,741 
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing23,725 93,346 65,113 218,638 
Customer operations9,360 34,978 24,792 76,530 
Engineering and product development9,966 37,085 24,651 87,504 
General, administrative, and other10,101 34,442 30,778 80,602 
Total operating expenses53,152 199,851 145,334 463,274 
Income from operations12,207 28,599 1,372 80,467 
Other income (expense)50 22 5,497 (5,196)
Expense on warrants and convertible notes, net(2,588)(776)(2,317)(807)
Net income before income taxes9,669 27,845 4,552 74,464 
Benefit for income taxes (1,268) (2,035)
Net income before attribution to noncontrolling interests9,669 29,113 4,552 76,499 
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests  (404) 
Net income attributable to Upstart Holdings, Inc. common stockholders$9,669 $29,113 $4,956 $76,499 
Net income per share attributable to Upstart Holdings, Inc. common stockholders, basic$0.12 $0.37 $ $1.00 
Net income per share attributable to Upstart Holdings, Inc. common stockholders, diluted$0.10 $0.30 $ $0.81 
Weighted-average number of shares outstanding used in computing net income per share attributable to Upstart Holdings, Inc. common stockholders, basic14,707,717 79,392,600 14,663,623 76,586,395 
Weighted-average number of shares outstanding used in computing net income per share attributable to Upstart Holdings, Inc. common stockholders, diluted26,745,480 96,057,210 14,663,623 94,165,325 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.









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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Convertible Preferred Stock and Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
(In thousands, except share data)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended
September 30, 2020
Convertible
Preferred Stock
Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalAccumulated
Deficit
Total Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Stockholders’
Deficit
Noncontrolling
Interest
Total Stockholders’ Deficit
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance as of June 30, 202047,349,577 $162,546 14,659,961 $2 $17,739 $(79,918)$(62,177)$ $(62,177)
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options— — 101,996 — 307 — 307 — 307 
Issuance of common stock in connection with an incentive agreement— — 282,750 — 1,696 — 1,696 — 1,696 
Stock-based compensation expense— — — — 2,743 — 2,743 — 2,743 
Incentive share expense— — — — 429 — 429 — 429 
Net income— — — — — 9,669 9,669 — 9,669 
Balance as of September 30, 202047,349,577 $162,546 15,044,707 $2 $22,914 $(70,249)$(47,333)$ $(47,333)



Nine Months Ended
September 30, 2020
Convertible
Preferred Stock
Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalAccumulated
Deficit
Total Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Stockholders’
Deficit
Noncontrolling
Interest
Total Stockholders’ Deficit
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance as of December 31, 201947,349,577 $162,546 14,561,398 $2 $12,489 $(75,205)$(62,714)$1,026 $(61,688)
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options— — 200,559 — 510 — 510 — 510 
Issuance of common stock in connection with an incentive agreement— — 282,750 — 1,696 — 1,696 — 1,696 
Stock-based compensation expense— — — — 7,432 — 7,432 — 7,432 
Return of capital to interests in consolidated VIEs— — — — — — — (622)(622)
Incentive share expense— — — — 787 — 787 — 787 
Net income (loss)— — — — — 4,956 4,956 (404)4,552 
Balance as of September 30, 202047,349,577 $162,546 15,044,707 $2 $22,914 $(70,249)$(47,333)$ $(47,333)


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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Convertible Preferred Stock and Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
(In thousands, except share data)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended
September 30, 2021
Convertible
Preferred Stock
Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalRetained Earnings (Accumulated
Deficit)
Total Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Stockholders’
Equity
Noncontrolling
Interest
Total Stockholders’ Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance as of June 30, 2021 $ 77,626,866 $8 $737,924 $(21,836)$716,096 $ $716,096 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options— — 3,656,385 — 6,841 — 6,841 — 6,841 
Issuance of common stock upon settlement of restricted stock units— — 12,571 — — — — — — 
Stock-based compensation expense— — — — 21,417 — 21,417 — 21,417 
Issuance of common stock under employee stock purchase plan— — 243,725 — 4,145 — 4,145 — 4,145 
Purchase of capped calls— — — — (58,523)— (58,523)— (58,523)
Net income— — — — — 29,113 29,113 — 29,113 
Balance as of September 30, 2021 $ 81,539,547 $8 $711,804 $7,277 $719,089 $ $719,089 


Nine Months Ended
September 30, 2021
Convertible
Preferred Stock
Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalRetained Earnings (Accumulated
Deficit)
Total Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Stockholders’
Equity
Noncontrolling
Interest
Total Stockholders’ Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance as of December 31, 2020 $ 73,314,026 $7 $369,467 $(69,222)$300,252 $ $300,252 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options— — 4,941,362 — 9,773 — 9,773 — 9,773 
Issuance of common stock upon settlement of restricted stock units— — 19,017 — — — — — — 
Exercise of common stock warrants— — 72,407 — — — — — — 
Stock-based compensation expense— — — — 52,245 — 52,245 — 52,245 
Shares withheld related to net share settlement of restricted stock units— — (1,730)— (236)— (236)— (236)
Issuance of common stock in connection with acquisition— — 650,740 — 71,003 — 71,003 — 71,003 
Issuance of common stock in connection with follow-on offering, net of underwriting discounts, commissions, and offering costs— — 2,300,000 1 263,930 — 263,931 — 263,931 
Issuance of common stock under employee stock purchase plan— — 243,725 — 4,145 — 4,145 — 4,145 
Purchase of capped calls— — — — (58,523)— (58,523)— (58,523)
Net income— — — — — 76,499 76,499 — 76,499 
Balance as of September 30, 2021  81,539,547 $8 $711,804 $7,277 $719,089 $ $719,089 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
20202021
Cash flows from operating activities
Net income before attribution to noncontrolling interests$4,552 $76,499 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
Change in fair value of financial instruments (includes $(4,238) from related parties for the nine months ended September 30, 2020)
18,801 (5,839)
Stock-based compensation7,102 50,125 
Gain on loan servicing arrangements(1,747)(4,223)
Depreciation and amortization1,631 4,984 
Incentive share expense786  
Noncash interest expense54 990 
Net changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Purchase of loans for immediate resale(1,554,705)(5,872,988)
Proceeds from immediate resale of loans1,554,705 5,872,988 
Purchase of loans held-for-sale(109,113)(80,305)
Principal payments received for loans held-for-sale15,237 4,398 
Net proceeds from sale of loans held-for-sale6,813 90,537 
Other assets(4,843)(22,806)
Operating lease liability and right-of-use asset66 1,028 
Accounts payable(592)(4,556)
Payable to investors13,137 38,811 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities(4,701)29,854 
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities(52,817)179,497 
Cash flows from investing activities
Principal payments received for loans held by consolidated securitizations24,018  
Net proceeds from sale of loans held-for-investment88,136 10,793 
Principal payments received for loans held-for-investment12,277 14,722 
Principal payments received for notes receivable and repayments of residual certificates11,306 9,115 
Purchase of loans held-for-investment(3,774)(92,738)
Purchase of non-marketable equity securities (40,000)
Purchase of notes receivable and residual certificates(4) 
Purchase of property and equipment(1,282)(4,956)
Capitalized software costs(2,967)(4,476)
Acquisition, net of cash acquired (16,561)
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities127,710 (124,101)
Cash flows from financing activities
Proceeds from secondary offering, net of underwriting discounts, commissions, and offering costs 263,931 
Proceeds from issuance of convertible debt 661,250 
Payment of debt issuance costs (15,727)
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Continued)
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
20202021
Purchase of capped calls (58,523)
Taxes paid related to net share settlement of equity awards (236)
Payments made on securitization notes and certificates (includes $1,034 paid to related parties for the nine months ended September 30, 2020)
(26,126) 
Repayments of borrowings(99,835)(65,412)
Distributions made to noncontrolling interests(622) 
Proceeds from borrowings81,761 5,831 
Proceeds from issuance of common stock under employee stock purchase plan 4,145 
Proceeds from exercise of stock options510 9,773 
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(44,312)805,032 
Net increase in cash and restricted cash30,581 860,428 
Cash and restricted cash at beginning of period80,067 311,333 
Cash and restricted cash at end of period$110,648 $1,171,761 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information
Cash paid for interest$6,954 $2,796 
Cash paid for income taxes 2,247 
Supplemental disclosures of non-cash investing and financing activities
Issuance of common stock in connection with acquisition$ $80,256 
Derecognition of loans held-for-investment in consolidated VIE57,222  
Derecognition of payable to securitization note holders and residual certificate holders58,017  
Capitalized stock-based compensation expense330 2,120 





















The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

1.Description of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business

Upstart Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries (together “Upstart”, the “Company”, “we”, or “our”) apply modern data science and technology to the process of originating consumer credit. The Company helps bank partners originate credit by providing them with a proprietary, cloud-based, artificial intelligence lending platform. As the Company’s technology continues to improve and additional banks adopt the Upstart platform, consumers benefit from improved access to affordable and frictionless credit.

Upstart Network, Inc. was incorporated in Delaware in 2012. Pursuant to a restructuring, Upstart Holdings, Inc. was incorporated in December 2013 and became the holding company of Upstart Network, Inc. The Company currently operates in the United States and is headquartered in San Mateo, California and Columbus, Ohio. The Company’s fiscal year ends on December 31.
Basis of Presentation and Consolidation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the annual consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K and in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments, necessary to state fairly the Company’s financial position, results of operations, comprehensive income and cash flows for the periods presented, but are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be anticipated of any future annual or interim periods.

Certain information and disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Accordingly, the information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.

The preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires that management make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods.

Significant estimates and assumptions made in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements, which management believes are critical in understanding and evaluating the Company’s reported financial results include: (i) fair value determinations; (ii) stock-based compensation; (iii) consolidation of VIEs; and (iv) provision for income taxes, net of valuation allowance for deferred tax assets. The Company bases its estimates on various factors it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ from those estimates and such differences could affect the results of operations reported in future periods.
Stock-Based Compensation

The Company issues stock options, restricted stock units (“RSUs”), and restricted stock to employees and nonemployees, including directors and third-party service providers, and employee stock purchase rights granted under the Company’s employee stock purchase plan (“ESPP”). Stock options and employee stock purchase rights granted under the ESPP are initially measured at fair value at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. RSUs and restricted stock are measured at the fair market value of our common stock at the grant date. Stock-based compensation expenses are recognized based on their respective grant-date fair values. Forfeitures are estimated at the time of grant and revised, as necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

initial estimates. Stock-based compensation expense is recorded net of estimated forfeitures, such that the expense is recorded only for those awards that are expected to vest.

Business Combinations

The Company accounts for business combinations using the acquisition method of accounting which requires the fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed to be recognized in the interim condensed consolidated financial statements. Assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are recognized at their estimated fair value as of the acquisition date. The excess purchase price over the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed is recorded as goodwill. The allocation of fair values may be subject to adjustment after the initial allocation for up to a one-year period, with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Acquisition-related costs, such as legal and consulting fees, are recognized separately from the business combination and are expensed as incurred.

Non-marketable Equity Securities

The Company’s strategic investment consisting of non-marketable equity securities on the condensed consolidated balance sheets is an investment in a privately held company. Non-marketable equity securities do not have a readily determinable fair value and are measured by the Company at cost less impairment, if any, and adjusted for changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for an identical or similar investment in the same issuer (the “measurement alternative”). Gains and losses on the investment, realized and unrealized, are recognized in other income (expense), net on our condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income and a new carrying value is established for the investment upon such recognition of the gains and losses. There have been no unrealized or realized gains and losses or impairments related to non-marketable equity securities accounted for under the measurement alternative for any period presented. As of September 30, 2021, the carrying value of our non-marketable equity securities, which do not have a readily determinable fair value, totaled $40 million. The Company had no such securities as of December 31, 2020.

The determination of whether an orderly transaction is for an identical or similar investment requires significant management judgment. In its evaluation, the Company considers factors such as differences in the rights and preferences of the investment and the extent to which those differences would affect the fair value of the investment. In the event the Company identifies an observable price change from an orderly transaction for an identical or similar investment of the same issuer, the Company must estimate the fair value of its strategic investments using the most recent data available. The Company’s impairment analysis encompasses an assessment of both qualitative and quantitative factors.

Goodwill and Intangible Assets

Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired. Goodwill is reviewed for impairment annually, or more frequently if an event or a change in circumstances indicates that goodwill may be impaired. We first assess qualitative factors to determine if it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If the Company concludes the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value, a quantitative test is performed. We perform a quantitative goodwill impairment test by determining the fair value of the reporting unit and comparing it to the carrying value of the reporting unit. If the fair value of the reporting unit is greater than the reporting unit’s carrying value, then the carrying value of the reporting unit is deemed to be recoverable. If the carrying value of the reporting unit is greater than the reporting unit’s fair value, goodwill is impaired and written down to the reporting unit’s fair value.

Acquired intangible assets are recorded at fair value on the date of acquisition and amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Acquired intangible assets are presented net of accumulated amortization on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. The Company reviews the carrying amounts of intangible assets for impairment whenever an event or change in circumstances indicates that the carrying amount of the assets may not
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

be recoverable. We measure the recoverability of intangible assets by comparing the carrying amount of each asset to the future undiscounted cash flows we expect the asset to generate. Impairment is measured by the amount in which the carrying value of the asset exceeds its fair value. In addition, we periodically evaluate the estimated remaining useful lives of long-lived intangible assets to determine whether events or changes in circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining period of amortization.
Follow-on Offering

On April 13, 2021, the Company completed a follow-on offering, in which 2,300,000 shares of common stock (including the exercise in full of the underwriters’ option to purchase 300,000 additional shares) were issued and sold at $120.00 per share. The Company received net proceeds of $263.9 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $11.0 million and offering expenses of $1.0 million. Offering expenses consisted of incremental accounting, legal, and other fees incurred related to the follow-on offering.
Other Income (Expense)

Other income (expense) primarily consists of dividend income earned by the Company on its unrestricted cash balance which is recognized in the period earned.

In April 2020, the Company received a forgivable loan under the Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”), totaling $5.3 million with a stated annual interest rate of 1%. All loan payments are deferred for six months if not forgiven under the provisions of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”). The loan and accrued interest are forgivable for borrowers who use the loan proceeds for eligible expenses during a twenty-four week period following the borrower’s receipt of the loan and maintain payroll and employee headcount. The Company has used the full proceeds of the loan for eligible expenses within the required period. The Company determined that forgiveness of the loan under the CARES Act was reasonably assured and recorded the full amount of proceeds as other income in the condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income in 2020. In March 2021, the Company voluntarily repaid proceeds received under the Paycheck Protection Program plus accrued interest totaling $5.3 million. The Company recognized the loan principal repayment as an other expense.
Emerging Growth Company Status

The Company is an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards issued subsequent to the enactment of the JOBS Act until those standards apply to private companies. The Company has elected to use this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until the earlier of the date that it is (i) no longer an emerging growth company or (ii) affirmatively and irrevocably opts out of the extended transition period provided in the JOBS Act. As a result, the condensed consolidated financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with the new or revised accounting pronouncements as of public company effective dates.

The Company will no longer qualify as an emerging growth company on the last day of the fiscal year ending December 31, 2021. Accordingly, the Company will be required to comply with the new or revised accounting pronouncements as of the effective dates applicable to public companies that are not emerging growth companies, as disclosed below.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
        
The Company adopted the following accounting standards during the nine months ended September 30, 2021:
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)


In August 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2018-15, Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract, which requires a customer in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract to follow the internal-use software guidance in Topic 350-40 to determine which implementation costs to capitalize as assets or expense as incurred. The standard is effective January 1, 2021 for emerging growth companies that have adopted the private company relief. The amendments in this ASU can be applied either retrospectively or prospectively to all implementation costs after the date of adoption. The guidance became effective on January 1, 2021 and the Company adopted the standard on a prospective basis. The adoption of the standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements or related disclosures.

In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity, which simplifies accounting for convertible instruments by removing major separation models required under current U.S. GAAP. The standard removes certain settlement conditions that are required for equity contracts to qualify for the derivative scope exception and also simplifies the diluted earnings per share calculation in certain areas. The amendments in this update are effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The amendment is to be adopted through either a fully retrospective or modified retrospective method of transition. Early adoption is permitted. The Company early adopted ASU 2020-06 on January 1, 2021 with no material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements or related disclosures.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

In June 2016, the FASB amended guidance related to impairment of financial instruments as part of ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which will be effective January 1, 2023 for emerging growth companies that have adopted the private company relief. The guidance replaces the incurred loss impairment methodology with an expected credit loss model for which a company recognizes an allowance based on the estimate of expected credit loss. The Company accounts for its loans at fair value through net income, which is outside the scope of Topic 326. For available for sale debt securities, the guidance will require recognition of expected credit losses by recognizing an allowance for credit losses when the fair value of the security is below amortized cost and the recognition of this allowance is limited to the difference between the security’s amortized cost basis and fair value. The Company is evaluating the impact this ASU will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. The Company plans to adopt Topic 326 effective as of January 1, 2021 in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ending December 31, 2021.

In March 2020 the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting followed by ASU 2021-01, Reference Rate Reform, Scope issued in January 2021. ASU 2020-04 and ASU 2021-01 provide temporary optional expedients and exceptions for applying U.S. GAAP to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference the London Interbank Offered Rate or another reference rate expected to be discontinued because of reference rate reform, if certain criteria are met. The guidance in ASU 2020-04 and ASU 2021-01 was effective upon issuance and, once adopted, may be applied prospectively to contract modifications and hedging relationships through December 31, 2022. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of ASU 2020-04 and ASU 2021-01 on its condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
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Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)


2.Revenue
Revenue from fees, net

The Company disaggregates revenue from fees by type of service for the periods presented as follows:
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
2020202120202021
Revenue from fees, net:
Platform and referral fees, net$55,643 $191,442 $123,485 $467,476 
Servicing fees, net7,218 18,979 20,694 46,412 
Total revenue from fees, net$62,861 $210,421 $144,179 $513,888 
Platform and referral fees, net

The Company enters into contracts with bank partners to provide access to a cloud-based artificial intelligence lending platform developed by the Company (the “Upstart platform”) to enable banks to originate unsecured personal and secured auto loans. The Upstart platform includes a cloud-based application (through Upstart.com or a bank-branded program) for submitting loan applications, verifying information provided within submitted applications, risk underwriting (through a series of proprietary technology solutions), delivery of electronic loan offers, and if the offer is accepted by the borrower, an electronic loan documentation signed by the borrower. Bank partners can specify certain parameters of loans they are willing to originate. Under these contracts, bank partners can choose to use Upstart’s referral services, which allow them to access new borrowers through Upstart’s marketing channels. The Company’s contracts with bank partners are non-cancelable and generally have 12-month terms that automatically renew.

After origination, Upstart-powered loans are either retained by bank partners, purchased by the Company for immediate resale to institutional investors under loan sale agreements, or purchased and held by the Company. For loans purchased by the Company, Upstart pays bank partners a one-time loan premium fee upon completion of the minimum holding periods. Upstart also pays bank partners monthly loan trailing fees based on the amount and timing of principal and interest payments made by borrowers of the underlying loans. The monthly loan trailing fees are paid based on the amount and timing of principal and interest payments made by borrowers of the underlying loans. Both the loan premium fees and loan trailing fees are consideration payable to customers and are recorded as a reduction to platform and referral fees, net, which is part of revenue from fees, net, in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income for the periods presented. The Company recognized $1.8 million and $5.6 million, of loan premium fees and loan trailing fees as contra-revenue within platform and referral fees, net for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, and $6.6 million and $16.2 million, for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, respectively.

As of December 31, 2020 and September 30, 2021, the Company recorded $1.3 million and $3.3 million of loan trailing fee liability, respectively, which is recorded at fair value and included within accrued expenses other liabilities on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. Refer to “Note 4. Fair Value Measurement” for additional information on changes in fair value associated with trailing fee liabilities.

The Company’s arrangements for platform and referral services typically consist of an obligation to provide one or both of these services to customers, which are our bank partners, on a when and if needed basis (a stand-ready obligation), and revenue is recognized as such services are performed. Additionally, the services have the same pattern and period of transfer, and when provided individually or together, are accounted for as a single combined performance obligation representing a series of distinct services.
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Table of Contents
Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)


Platform and referral services are typically provided under a fixed or declining (tier-based) price per unit based on volume or as a percentage of the total value of loans originated each period; however, pricing for these services may also be based on minimum usage fees. The tier-based pricing, when offered, resets on a monthly basis and does not accumulate. Given that the nature of the Company’s promise is to stand-ready and provide continuous access to and process transactions through the platform, tier-based pricing based on usage represents variable consideration. Since the variable fees relate directly to the day in which such services are provided, they generally meet the criteria for allocating variable consideration entirely to one or more, but not all, performance obligations in a contract. Accordingly, when the requisite criteria are met, variable fees are allocated to and recognized on the day the services are provided. Fees for platform and referrals services are typically billed and paid on a monthly basis. As such, the Company’s contracts with customers do not include a significant financing component.

The Company did not recognize revenue from performance obligations related to prior periods for the periods presented. The Company had no material contract assets, contract liabilities, or deferred contract costs recorded as of December 31, 2020 and September 30, 2021. The Company had $8.1 million and $17.0 million of accounts receivable that are included in other assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheets related to contracts with customers as of December 31, 2020 and September 30, 2021, respectively. The Company’s allowance for bad debt was immaterial as of December 31, 2020 and September 30, 2021, and the Company’s bad debt expense was immaterial for the periods presented.

The Company capitalizes incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer, which are certain sales commissions paid to acquire bank partners. Capitalized costs are amortized over the expected period of benefit, which we have determined, based on an analysis, to be three years. The Company applies the practical expedient to expense costs to obtain contracts with customers if the amortization period is one year or less. As of September 30, 2021, the Company had an immaterial amount of contract costs capitalized within other assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, the Company amortized an immaterial amount of capitalized contracts costs to sales and marketing in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.

For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, the Company had one customer (“Customer A”) which accounted for 59% and 65% of the Company’s total revenue, respectively, and a second customer (“Customer B”) accounted for 21% and 15% of the Company’s total revenue, respectively. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, Customer A accounted for 56% and 59%, respectively, of the Company’s total revenue, and Customer B accounted for 28% and 25%, respectively, of the Company’s total revenue.

One customer accounted for 34% of accounts receivable as of December 31, 2020, and a second customer accounted for 15% of accounts receivable for both December 31, 2020 and September 30, 2021. A third customer accounted for 10% as of September 30, 2021.
Servicing fees, net

The Company also enters into contracts with bank partners and institutional investors to provide loan servicing for the life of Upstart-powered loans. These services commence upon origination of these loans by bank partners and include collection, processing and reconciliations of payments received, investor reporting and borrower customer support as well as distribution of funds to the holders of the loans. The Company charges the loan holder a monthly servicing fee calculated based on a predetermined percentage of the outstanding principal balance. Servicing fees also include certain ancillary fees charged on a per transaction basis for processing late payments and payments declined due to insufficient funds. Servicing fees are recognized in the period the services are provided. Loan servicing fees are not within the scope of ASC 606 and are accounted for under ASC 860, Transfers and servicing of financial assets.

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Table of Contents
Upstart Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular Amounts in Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data and Ratios, or as Noted)
(Unaudited)

Servicing fees, net also include gains and losses on assets and liabilities recognized under loan servicing arrangements for loans retained by bank partners or loans sold to institutional investors. Such gains or losses are recognized based on whether the benefits of servicing are expected to more than adequately compensate the Company for carrying out its servicing obligations. Servicing fees also include changes in fair value of loan servicing assets and liabilities in the periods presented. Refer to “Note 4. Fair Value Measurement” for additional information on changes in fair value associated with servicing assets and liabilities.

The Company recognized gains related to loan servicing rights upon loan sales for the periods presented as follows:

Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
2020202120202021
Net gain related to loan servicing rights$68 $2,121 $1,747 $4,223 

The Company generally outsources borrower payment collections for loans that are more than 30 days past due or charged off to third-party collection agencies. The Company charges bank partners and institutional investors for collection agency fees related to their outstanding loan portfolio. The Company has discretion in hiring the collection agencies and determining the scope of their work. As the principal in the arrangement, the Company recognizes gross revenue from collection agency fees in the period that the services are provided. Upstart also receives certain ancillary fees inclusive of late payment fees and ACH fail fees. Revenue from collection agency fees and borrower fees are included in servicing fees, net as part of revenue from fees, net in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income. The total fees charged by collection agencies are also recognized in the period incurred and reported as part of customer operations expenses.

The Company recognized collection agency fees and borrower fees, which are included in servicing fees, net for the periods presented as follows:

Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
2020202120202021
Collection agency fees$624 $1,214 $2,078 $3,068 
Borrower fees512 2,062 1,448 4,043